A2L (flammable) R32 Refrigerant

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Why flammable refrigerants, when there are non-flammable, is it safe and is it legal? 

Space Air policy & Social Responsibilities download document here

All informations are factual and extracted from International Standards, BSI-EN Standards, Directives, Codes of Practice, Manufacturers installation, operation and User manuals.

What is Refrigerant?

What are refrigerant specification and safety classifications?

Refrigerants are chemicals with unique thermodynamic properties advantages, have very low boiling temperatures, and can carry 10 times more energy per weight than water and 50 times more than air.

There are over 300 types of refrigerants in THREE flammability classifications Classifications (A1, A2/A2L, A3) in accordance with ISO 817:2014 (E) & ASHRAE Standard 34 International Standards.


What is A2L class R32, who introduced it and who owns the patents?

HFC R32, as a  "SINGLE COMPONENT** is an A2L class flammable refrigerant, introduced by Daikin Industries*1 (owns 300 Patents) in Japan in 2012 and 2015 in Europe as a low GWP TEMPORARY short term substitute for HFC R410A A1 class non-flammable HGWP Refrigerants for small splits with up to 3 kg system charge ONLY. *1


**Note:    R32 is an important component in many A1 class non-flammable  Zeotropic mixture,  such as R410A (50% R32, 50% R125). R407C and many existing & future. A1 class refrigerants used in AC in Public and Residential buildings since 1928.

Duties, responsibilities and obligations when dealing with A2L class flammable refrigerants

Manufacturers / Authorised Representative / Importers / Distributor / Specifiers / Installers

Is A2L class R32 safe and is it legal?

Q) Is A2L class R32 legal and safe in air conditioning equipment or is it Greenwashing*?

 does it conform to the following:

a) Manufacturer, Importer, Distributor legal OBLIGATIONS 



b) Extra Engineer Safety qualifications 

in addition to C&G 2708 or F-gas certification, handling A2/A2L class (flammable) & A3 class (highly flammable) refrigerants requires  

c) Extra Installation Safety 

Materials and costs of components required for A2L class Flammable(ventilation, alarms, pipe protection electrical installation and location of equipment)

To meet manufacturers installation recommendation which they don not tell you at purchasing point!!


d) Extra End Users awareness

End Users MUST be clearly Informed of EXTRA precautionery requirements, risks and restrictions of use as indicated in the User Manual (examples below are of various major manufacturers).



It is the Specifier and Installer's responsibility to ensure compliance. Do not accept manufacturers Greenwashing statements.

Remember there are safer options, Insist on A1 class only

Did you know?

- A2L class flammable R32 is a component of some A1 class non-flammable refrigerants (e.g. R407C [R32+R134a+R125], R410A [R32+R125]), & many more. R32 as a mixture, has been around more than 20 years to replace A1 class non-flammable  HCFC22 due to its ODP( Ozon Depletion Potential). The mixture with R125 is to suppress the flammability of R32 to qualify as an A1 class non-flammable,for safe use in Public & Residential Buildings*1.A2l flammable refrigerants can/will propogate fire in the event of a leak (UL test)

- A2L class flammable R32 is a  short term refrigerant with a low GWP of 675 (if leaked, but will propogate fire), introduced by Daikin in 2012/2015, with the intention (falsley**), to replace,the current A1 class non-flammable R410A (GWP 2088) in small Split Systems,with a charge of less than 3kg, according to (EU Rule) This is not until 2025 & with exemptions(This will change after the 1st January 2021 as the UK is following Montrael / Kigali international protocole  & revised UK Building Safety Regulation as a result of the Grenfell Tower disaster)

** FAULSE Claim1 :A2L class flammable R32 as a single component, is falsely claimed, can carry more energy (aprox 1-4% depending on temperatures) per wieght, than R410A?  The facts are, due to i) high discharge temperatures (20°C+), ii) high missability with oil iii) flammabilty manufacturers has to a) Reduce refrigerant charge, b) Increase compressor speed & c) Adjust and limit operation due to the flammability and possibile explosion (click Diesel effect).. (see Daikin Chemical document), (UL test)

Flammable refrigerants (A2L) can propogate fire


A2L HFC R32 charged refrigeration cycle can explode? YES (Called Diesel Effect) watch video below

a) If air or moisture remains in the system (inaccurate vacuuming), that might ignite the oil during compression cycle. [R32 discharge temp is 20°C higher than R410A].  

b) If the system is in the proximity of a fire                            


UK Government view for not committing to flammable refrigerants:

UK Government Study of the impact of high GWP A1 class non-flammables refrigerants (e.g. R410A) in Heat Pumps, concluded that the carbon benefit of displacing fossil fuels was around 17 times higher than the impact of refrigerant leaks. without the risks, cost and uncertainty of A2L class flammable refrigerants future (e.g. R32)

The upcoming Building Health & Safety revision (a result of Grenfell Tower disaster) will BAN the use of FLAMMABLE materials in Public & Domestic buildings*1.

Why and who Introduced A2L Flammable R32 as a single component?

Why - Daikin introduced as a single component? The false argument is that it has Low GWP( Greenwashing*) if leaked!, but, intentionally avoiding to mention the possible consequences, being flammable, when leaked?. Intentional Greenwashing* of the fact that flammables (A2 or A2L) never been used in Public or Residential Buildings since 1928. A2L R32 does not meet UK or International safety regulations,

Who - Daikin Industries manufacturers of AC equipment & Chemicals 1st introduced flammable refrigerants A2L class R32 as a single component in 2015 in Europe and registered 300+  patents regarding R32, which they licenced to other manufacturers  Business Cartel (any licenced manufacturer such as Mitsubishi, Panasonic, LG, Samsung etc) forcing them to stop supply of small splits with A1 class non-flammable R410A before EU supply ban on 1st January 2025!

False claim2:  According to Daikin Chemicals page 12  "under Japan‘s High Pressure Gas Safety Act, it is not classified as a flammable gas?" (It does not however states it is non-flammable?!) challenging ISO 817 & ASHRAE 34, standards. 

   A DAIKIN Advert Example

Daikin and other manufacturers in the Cartel are refusing to supply/confirm necessary certification to comply with Directives such as ATEX 34/2014 or H&S 2016 no.1107 and Statutory Instrument or meet Advertising Standards "CAP Code" ?

Space Air® say: It is a shame that A2L R32 is being forced on the UK and some EU countries by a manufacturer, Space Air promoted for 36 years as the true innovator and leader. Unfortunatly Daikin Industries under their chairman Mr. Noriyuki Inoue deceptivley introduced R32 in Japan in 2012 & in EU in 2015. 

Mr. Inoue, used Daikin Industry strength in innovation and trust (Space Air supported and promoted since 1980), to monopolize the patents (300+ no.) in the use of R32 as a single component and deceptively promoted them to other Japanese, Korean and Chinese manufacturers and forced them to follow Daikin patents guidelines creating a Business Cartel , Greenwash*    DAIKIN Advert Example

Daikin under Mr Inoue's vision, continued with the deception (probable under the advice of Daikin Europe?), not only in Japan but Europe also, dishonestly using the common fact that no a) one will ask if A2L class is flammable or not?, Knowing very well that only non-flammable refrigerants used since 1928!! and, b) Daikin is no. 1 and have Chemical Interest, manupilated EU legistlators to adapt and monopolised the EU quota (Daikin has 28 quota out of 200) system. (Note: The quota system is under rivision to correct the abuse and to alline EU with Kigali amendment to the Montrael Protocol)..

The Business Cartel (forced by Daikin pattents) starved the UK and EU market of A1 class non-flammable R410A in order to promote the sale of uncertified equipment charged with A2L class flammable R32, which lead to the hiking of prices of A1 class non-flammable refrigerants in 2017/2018 (e.g. R410A from £14/kg to over £80/kg) knowing very well that any EU ban will not apply till 2025 and only for splits systems charged with upto 3kg (click for details)

Life, in any form, is more important than commercial deception and false claims.


*Greenwashing is a deceptive form of marketing that claims a company's products, policies and goals are environmentally friendly and therefore do less damage to nature, with an underlying purpose to increase profits

*1 Public Buildings means any building having free entrance or permissible for entry to the common masses then that building will be called public buildings e.g. Offices, Restaurants, apartments, shops, Hospitals, Hotels, Supermarkets, Sports centres and Care homes.


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