A2L (flammable) R32 Refrigerant (1)
Why flammable refrigerants?
Do you know :
- UK is the only country you CANNOT buy an A1 class R410A non-flammable Split System with less than 3 kg charge, from the Cartel lead by Daikin due to the Patent with false environmental benefits!, BUT they sell VRF, chillers and Large Splits with R410A?
(R410A is the domenant refigerant throughout the world) Non-flammable refrigerant been around since 1928 while flammable since 2015?
- R410A A1 class non-flammable charged small split systems are available in ALL countries (some have a choice R410A or R32) including France, Spain, Italy, Japan, China, South East Asia. In some countries they do not know what is R32 A2L class FLAMMABLE refrigerant including USA, Middle East, Africa, South America etc ?
- Major components (compressor, fan coil, expansion valves etc) for a split system are the same for R410A & R32.
Note: R32 due to its flammability a) have more safety controls, b) means cost more, c) have to make special risk assessment, d) different installation, operating and service manuals, training and e) not forgeting insurance permiums for both installer & End USERS.
UK Government view for not committing to flammable refrigerants states:
A UK Government Study of the impact of high GWP A1 class non-flammables refrigerants (e.g. R410A) in Heat Pumps, has concluded that the carbon benefit of displacing fossil fuels was around 17 times higher than the impact of refrigerant leaks. And without the risks, cost and uncertainty of A2L class flammable refrigerants future (e.g. R32)
Hence you can & should replace R32 with R410A to be Compliant
What is Refrigerant? Which Standards Apply?
Refrigerants are chemicals with unique thermodynamic properties advantages, have very low boiling temperatures, and can carry 10 times more energy per weight than water and 50 times more than air. Refrigerants are main energy transfer media in any DX (Direct Expansion) Cycle that exists in Heat Pump, Air Conditioig system or Refrigeration system. (click hear to learn more about DX Cycle)
There are two classifications needs to be taken into account in the event of an accidental leak:
Flammability: There are THREE Flammability classifications (A1-non-flammable, A2/A2L-flammable, A3-Highly flammable) accordance with ISO 817:2014 (E) & ASHRAE Standard 34 International Standards. R410A is A1, R32 is A2L
Toxicity: There are THREE Toxicity safety limits according to BSEN 378-1 (ISO 5149-1) that relates to the displacement of Oxygen in occupied spaces in the event of refrigerant leak, B1 (Lo), B2 (Med), B3 (Hi).
Who Introduced A2L Flammable R32 as a single component and why?
Who - Daikin Industries manufacturers of AC equipment & Chemicals 1st introduced flammable refrigerant A2L class R32 as a single component in Japan in 2012 and 2015 in Europe and registered 300+ patents regarding R32, Daikin licenced the Patents to other manufacturers Business Cartel (such as Mitsubishi, Panasonic, LG, Samsung etc) and forcing them to stop supply R410A non-flammable charged small splits (less than 3 kg charge) in the UK, well before EU supply ban (>750 GWP) on 1st January 2025!. Without a CHOICE
A2L class flammable R32 is a low GWP (if leaked) & a TEMPORARY short term substitute for HFC R410A A1 class non-flammable Hi-GWP (if leaked) Refrigerant for small splits with up to 3 kg system charge ONLY..
Why - Daikin introduced A2L class R32 as a single component?
They falsely argue that it has Low GWP if leaked!, but, intentionally avoiding to mention the possible consequences of being flammable, when leaked?.
False claim: According to Daikin Chemicals page 12 "under Japan‘s High Pressure Gas Safety Act, it is not classified as a flammable gas?" (It does not however states it is non-flammable?!) challenging ISO 817 & ASHRAE 34, International Standards.
FACTS: (click on images for more)
UL Test Report 2021 highlights extra precautions required by the fire authority:
Is A2L class flammable R32 safe? and is it legal?
Duties, responsibilities and obligations when dealing/handling or specifying A2L class flammable refrigerants
a) Manufacturer, Importer, Distributor legal OBLIGATIONS
(Must get confirmation in writing)
b) Extra Engineer Safety qualifications
in addition to C&G 2708 or F-gas certification, handling A2/A2L class (flammable) & A3 class (highly flammable) refrigerants requires (Note: F-Gas Certification has nothing to do with F-Gas Regulations)
c) Extra Installation Safety
Materials and costs of components required for A2L class Flammable.
(ventilation, alarms, pipe protection electrical installation and location of equipment).
To meet manufacturers installation recommendation which are not mentioned at point of sale!!
d) Extra End Users awareness
End Users MUST be clearly Informed of EXTRA precautionery requirements, risks and restrictions of use as indicated in the User Manual (examples below are of various major manufacturers).
It is the Specifier and Installer's responsibility to ensure compliance. Do not accept manufacturers Greenwashing statements.
A1 class non-flammable refrigerants been around since 1928 due to non-flammibility and low toxicity?
A2L class flammable R32 is an important component in (Zeotropic mixture) of many A1 class non-flammable refrigerants (e.g. R407C [R32+R134a+R125], R410A [R32+R125]). It has been around more than 20 years to replace A1 class non-flammable HCFC22 due to its ODP( Ozon Depletion Potential). The mixture with R125 is to suppress the flammability of R32 to qualify as an A1 class non-flammable, for safe use in Public & Residential Buildings*1.
Accordingto BSEN378:2016: R32 room volume limit is 0.3 kg/m3 while R410A (B1) is 0.44kg/m3 which means 46.7% larger safe area in the event of a refrigerant leak and displacement of room oxygen.
A2L class flammable R32 is a short term (to be replaced in 2023). (according to Daikin CEO)?
A2L class flammable R32 as a single component, is falsely claimed, that can carry more energy (aprox 1-4% depending on temperatures) per wieght, than R410A? This is fales fact, as it Ignors overall system performance:
The facts are, there are no advantage over R410A due to following R32 disadvantages:
i) high discharge temperatures (20°C+) than R410A,
ii) high missability with oil
iii) flammabilty and possible explosion, (click Diesel effect)
Manufacturers had to:
a) Reduce refrigerant charge, due to i & ii above
b) Increase compressor speed to achive nominal capacities &
c) Adjust and limit operation to reduce possibility of EXPLOSION under pressure (diesel effect).
Daikin and other manufacturers in the Cartel are refusing to supply or confirm necessary certification to prove compliance with Directives such as ATEX 34/2014 or H&S 2016 no.1107 Statutory Instrument or meet Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) "CAP Code" ?. see latest CCPI - Code for Construction Product Infomation
The Business Cartel (forced by Daikin patents and control of EU Quota) starved & stopped supply in the UK and some EU market of A1 class non-flammable R410A in order to promote the sale of uncertified equipment charged with A2L class flammable R32, which lead to the hiking of prices of A1 class non-flammable refrigerants in 2017/2018 (e.g. R410A from £14/kg to over £80/kg) knowing very well that any EU ban will not apply till January 2025 and only for splits systems charged with upto 3kg (click for details)
A2L HFC R32 charged refrigeration cycle can explode? YES (Called Diesel Effect):
a) If air or moisture remains in the system (inaccurate vacuuming), that might ignite the oil during compression cycle. [R32 discharge temp is 20°C higher than R410A]. Fuel (R32+oil) + Oxygen + Heat
b) If the system is in the proximity of a fire
The upcoming Building Health & Safety revision (a result of Grenfell Tower disaster) will BAN the use of FLAMMABLE materials in Public & Domestic buildings*1.
Space Air® say: It is a shame that A2L R32 is being forced on the UK and some EU countries by a manufacturer, Space Air promoted for 36 years as the true innovator and leader. Unfortunatly Daikin Industries under their chairman Mr. Noriyuki Inoue and their Belguim subsidiary financial director, deceptivley (I should say ill advised by accountants at DENV Europe) introduced R32 as a single component in Japan in 2012 & in EU in 2015.
Q : Can you drop R410A refrigerant into an R32 designed cycle? A: YES, due to
- R410A non-flammable & R32 flammable are both HFCs and have the same Thermodynamic properties except R32 has a higher discharge temperature (+20°C) than R410A. (see enthalpy chart)
- R32 & R410A compressor oils are the same. Note: R32 has higher oil miscibility than R410A
- Refrigerant charge the same (less than R410A due to high temp which might ignite the oil in the compression cycle)
- Nominal capacities are the same due to increased compressor inverter speed to compensate less refrigerant.
Note: R32 less refrigerant charge is due to its higher oil miscibility and discharge temperature.
- The refrigeration cycle for R32 has extra safety controls due to high discharge temperature & flammability.
Not needed for R410A but no harm.
- The compressor model and spec in both R410A & R32 is the same (LG equipment)
- All indoor units are the same configuration, duty, airflow and electrical characteristics.
- Q: Will the warranty is affected? A: No, for the following reasons and manufacturers have no leg to stand on:
i) The manufacturers by stopping supply safe R410A are illegally forcing the use of flammable refrigerant risking life & property without a declaration or meeting safety obligation or Advertising Standards (ASA CAP Code)
ii) All main components are the same
iii) The oil is the same
iV) R410A is a mixture of 50% R32 & 50% R125 (a suppressant to the R32 flammability & lowers miscibility)
v) The operation (pressures and temperatures are the same or below R32)
vi) R410A being non-flammable is more tolerant to the presence of moisture.
- SEE Space Air Policy
(click on image for more details)
"Life, in any form, is more important than commercial deception and false claims"
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*Greenwashing is a deceptive form of marketing that claims a company's products, policies and goals are environmentally friendly and therefore do less damage to nature, with an underlying purpose to increase profits
*1 Public Buildings means any building having free entrance or permissible for entry to the common masses then that building will be called public buildings e.g. Offices, Restaurants, apartments, shops, Hospitals, Hotels, Supermarkets, Sports centres and Care homes.
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